Thursday, 25 May 2017

Race Roundup: What A Weekend!

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With race season now back in full swing we wanted to highlight some brilliant performances over the past weekend from TTH athletes, coaches and staff.

The performances from this weekend show where the TTH racing community has grown to and we wanted share some of the achievements with you in this blog and hope to continue these Race Roundups over the course of the season.

The TTH community has grown into something we are all incredibly proud of and feel a huge sense of pride in sharing the achievements of our athletes. We now cannot wait to see how the rest of the season will unfold!

Paul Hayward
Paul enjoying that finish line elation

Not wanting to just complete one race this weekend, Paul did two. Slateman sprint on the Saturday AND Slateman Full on the Sunday - making him a 'Savage' itself. Both went well with some open water demons being put to bed quite firmly and standing at the start line ready to race rather than being super nervous and worried about coming last! IM Austria is the goal....and it's all coming together very very well.

Paul also wrote a nice feature in TRI247 about his weekend if you would like to read more!

Chris Abbey

Outlaw Half....due to a number of work and University commitments, training for Chris has been a challenge to say the least, so when he pulled out a swim PB and beat his target by 10 mins and then came in off the bike in sub 3:30 hours, we are not sure who had the biggest smile, him or Coach Sorrel!! As a coach, we don't just look at time goals, there are process goals to be achieved and one of Chris' was to ensure he finished off his stroke in the swim....100% achieved. Follow the process and the time will come. The run was always going to be tough for a number of reasons but with a bit of grit and determination....boom, first half distance completed. We are pretty sure he is still buzzing because we sure are!

Dan Lubbock
A great time from Dan!

Dan completed the Grafman Half Distance as a training race, absolutely smashed the bike leg with a sub 3 hour time....recently purchased a power meter and used this to huge effect, trusting the numbers and not his instinct (ie don't go off too hard) and ended up overtaking all the people who boosted past him at the beginning. When Dan and Coach Sorrel first spoke in October they set out a sub 3 hour ride as a target with an average power and speed in line with what he put out at the race being a dream rather than a reality. Little did he know! On to Ironman 70.3 Wimbleball......

Moral of the story? Have a plan and stick to it!

April Payne

April did Barcelona 70.3. Her time was 6:55:16 which considering she had major shoulder surgery earlier this year was very impressive!

Chris Ashford

Chris competing in the VLM earlier this year

Previously we said Chris was one to watch in the running field and Chris, two weeks out from the Comrades Marathon achieved an incredible 7th in the English Ultra Championships. For 100km running event featuring four 25km out and backs, Chris finished in a brilliant time of 7hrs 33 mins, that’s an average pace of 4:31/km…100 times! (of course it is even faster if you take out the pauses for aid stations!) 

Karl with partner Jude

Karl White

Karl, a frequent guest of ours in Portugal came 18th in his age group at the Southport Triathlon (his home town) in a time of 1:16 after suffering a long standing Achillies injury. Having spent countless hours doing his exercises and building himself back up, he has got his competitive edge back. After a sub 20 min 5km run off the bike, we look forward to seeing what he can achieve when he competes again in a couple of weeks time.

Andy Cowen

Andy completed the Nuffield Eton Dorney sprint distance triathlon this weekend and came first in his age group in a time of 1:14:31. Andy took the title of  7th fastest bike overall.

Jon Halley

Outlaw Half.....tick, tick, tick...of the goals that Jon and Coach Sorrel had set for this race ALL of them were ticked off! Coach Sorrel had little else to say, this is also someone who has had to juggle work, travel and training to make sure they were ready for this race, again, keeping things steady and following the plan resulted in everything going to plan (maybe not use that brand of gel again though!). The next goal is to take those 18 seconds off for a sub 5:30 half distance.

Tim Matthews

Tim on the run course at the Outlaw Half

Outlaw Half, Tim sent us a text before he embarked on his journey home to say his race was FAB.  Tim changed a number of things nutritionally for this race. A large part of this was the huge light bulb moments he had on a recent training holiday in Portugal so this is an area that can still be improved on further!

Denise Tracey

Little did Denise know that she was heading for one of her best results ever......a solid swim in the pool and then one of the fastest bikes she has done and a proper negative split in the run which included a long hill in the last few kilometres. Denise is one of those athletes that ticks off the training throughout the block that has been set and the results just come rolling in. Having spent some time in Portugal, it's great to be able to see an athlete in training to give them some additional support and advice and this is one of those examples. 

Coach James

Coach James completed the Grafman half. Using this race as a training race, James stuck to his planned power on the bike and then his planned run heart rate on the run. His finishing time was an impressive 4:33 but this did include a short swim leg of 950m.

Hannah Johnston & Coach Will Munday

Our head of Social Media, Hannah Johnston, and Coach Will Munday had an incredibly successful outing at the Slateman in North Wales. Hannah made her comeback (read more about her setbacks over the past eighteen months) and finished 5th Female overall. Meanwhile Will finished 1st U23 male and 12th Male overall.

Congratulations to everyone who raced this weekend and we look forward to plenty more racing to come this season!

Tri Training Harder

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Tuesday, 9 May 2017

Do I get hungry on a liquid-only plan?

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Solid or liquid...nutrition is a personal decision.
We'd usually try to focus on a liquid only strategy for long distance racing due to its simplicity in carrying what you need. However, often we get asked "what happens if I get hungry?!" as people 'need' solids. 

It’s perfectly acceptable to use solid foods too (especially if you need that full-feeling in the stomach) but they take longer to digest and you still need to take on fluids to stay hydrated. However, you may find that your digestive system handles gels better than solids, or vice versa. It may not even bother you that much at all and you can transition onto solid foods easily. If you're training for an endurance event, it's important to test different liquids and foods during your long training runs so you can know what works best for you. You don't want to try anything new on race day. It is important to note that if the you are consuming a high volume of fluids with adequate energy in them, then you will feel like you have eaten a lot as there is still a high amount of substance there. Think about how full you feel if you have a pub session drinking just beers – you get quite full!

However, take note of what works
best for you...trialing all different
 options of course!
The other factor to consider is convenience based on the event and duration. If you're doing a race, you can always get sports drinks or water from the aid stations (as long as they have the product that you like and have trained with). But if you rely on just sports drinks during your long training runs, you may have to stop to get more along the way. If you use food, you'll most likely be able to carry enough fuel for your entire run in your pockets or running belt, but you will also need to hydrate as well, which adds weight to carry. 

Studies have shown that solid fuel was equally as effective, over a 3 hour aerobic cycling session, as liquid / gel fuel (1)(2)(3)(4)(5) in absorbing the fuel required. However, similar studies undertaken, using triathletes, showed that once running is introduced, the liquid / gel fuel performance far surpassed the solid fuel nutrition, due to the jarring and sloshing motions exerted on the body when running.


(1) Lamb, Synder, et al.1991; 
Lamb, D.R., Snyder, A.C., Baur, T.S. (1991). Muscle glycogen loading with a liquid carbohydrate supplement. International Journal of Sport Nutrition 1, 52–60. 

(2) Coleman 1994;
Coleman, E. (1994). Update on carbohydrate: Solid versus liquid. International Journal of Sport Nutrition 4, 80–88. 

(3) Mason et al. 1993;
Mason, W.L., McConell, G., Hargreaves, M. (1993). Carbohydrate ingestion during exercise: Liquid vs solid feedings. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 15, 966–69. 

(4) Lugo et al. 1993;
Lugo, M., Sherman, W.M., Wimer, G.S., Garleb, K. (1993). Metabolic responses when different forms of carbohydrate energy are consumed during cycling. International Journal of Sport Nutrition 3, 398–407. 

(5) Robergs et al. 1998;
Robergs, R.A., McMinn, S.B., Mermier, C., Leadbetter, G., Ruby, B., Quinn, C. (1998). Blood glucose and glucoregulatory hormone responses to solid and liquid carbohydrate ingestion during exercise. International Journal of Sport Nutrition 8, 70–83. 

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Wednesday, 3 May 2017

How does Caffeine help endurance athletes?

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The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) states: Caffeine ingestion (3-9 mg/kg body wight) prior to exercise increases performance during prolonged endurance exercise and short-term intense exercise lasting approx. 5 minutes in the laboratory. These results are generally reported in well-trained elite or recreational athletes. 

It has been shown that caffeine can enhance focus during bouts of extended exhaustive exercise (think how you feel if you have a caffeinated drink even when not training!). 
Caffeine is ergogenic (performance-enhancing) for sustained maximal endurance exercise, and has been shown to be highly effective for time-trial performance. 

As a side point, caffeine supplementation is also beneficial for high-intensity exercise, including team sports such as football and rugby, both of which are categorised by intermittent activity within a period of prolonged duration. (We have used this to great effect with The Abingdon School Boat Club over the past few seasons.)

Enjoy your cup of coffee – but does it have enough caffeine for you?
There is a lot of literature indicating significant performance improvements in a wide range of sports when caffeine is taken: cycling, running, rowing and team sports as well as maximal muscular force and power outputs. (1)(2) - improving time to fatigue between 20-50% which is backed up by several other literatures such as (3) (23% increase in time to fatigue at 85% VO2Max), (4) (Exercise time at VO2 Max increased by 20%), (5) (1500m Running), (6) (Performance in 1500m swimming up by 1.5-1/7%), (7)  (In rowing 2000m tests improvements by about 1% in men and women) and (8) (Caffeine increases the maximum force during a voluntary contraction (MVC) by 3%.) 

There is no complete understanding as to what the exact reason behind caffeine’s success is. It is considered to be due to either the direct action of caffeine on the skeletal muscles or impacting the brain to reduce the perception of fatigue or increase fat use by the muscles thus sparing muscle glycogen use (but this is not proven as muscle glycogen use is unaffected (4) and there is limited evidence of whole body fat metabolism with carbohydrate sparing (9) (10) (11)). Recent studies (12) have indicated that ingesting caffeine with carbohydrate increases carbohydrate oxidation as a result of enhanced intestinal absorption of carbohydrates. As hypoglycaemia is the significant factor in limiting performance, there are clear advantages of having a greater quantity of carbohydrate oxidation!

Excretion (going for a pee) is not affected by caffeine during exercise (13) nor does it increase urine production during exercise (14) although it does so at rest.


(1) Graham and Spreit 1991;
Graham, T.E., Spriet, L.L. (1991). Performance and metabolic responses to a high caffeine dose during prolonged exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 71, 2292–98. 
(2) Spriet et al 1992;
Spriet, L.L. MacLean, D.A., Dyck, D.J., Hultman, E., Cederblad, G., Graham, T.E. (1992). Caffeine ingestion and muscle metabolism during prolonged exercise in humans. American Journal of Physiology 262, E891–98. 
(3) Pasman et al. 1995 ;
Pasman, W.J., van Baak, M.A., Jeukendrup, A.E., de Haan, A. (1995). The effect of different dosages of caffeine on endurance performance time. International Journal of Sports Medicine 16, 225–. 
(4) Jackman et al 1996;
Jackman, M., Wendling, P., Friars, D., Graham, T. (1996). Metabolic, catecholamine, and endurance responses to caffeine during intense exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 81, 1658–63. 
(5) Wiles et al 1992;
Wiles, J.D., Bird, S.R., Hopkins, J., Riley, M. (1992). Effect of caffeinated coffee on running speed, respiratory factors, blood lactate and perceived exertion during 1500m treadmill running. British Journal of Sports Medicine 26, 116–20. 
(6) MacIntosh et Al 1995;
 MacIntosh, B.R., Wright, B.M. (1995). Caffeine ingestion and performance of a 1500-metre swim. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology 20, 168-77. 
(7) Bruce et Al (2000);
Bruce, C.R., Anderson, M.E., Fraser, S.F., Stepto, N.K., Klein, R., Hopkins, W.G., Hawley, J.A. (2000). Enhancement of 2000-m rowing performance after caffeine ingestion. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 32, 1958–63. 
(8) Anderson et Al (2000);
Anderson, M.E., Bruce, C.R., Fraser, S.F., Stepto, N.K., Klein, R., Hopkins, W.G., Hawley, J.A. (2000). Improved 2000- meter rowing performance in competitive oarswomen after caffeine ingestion. International Journal of Sports Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 10, 464–75. 
(9) Kalmar, J.M., Cafarelli, E. (1999);
Kalmar, J.M., Cafarelli, E. (1999) Effects of caffeine on neuromuscular function. Journal of Applied Physiology 87, 801–08. 
(10) Mohr et al. 1998; 
Mohr, T., Van Soeren, M., Graham, T.E., Kjaer, M. (1998). Caffeine ingestion and metabolic responses of tetraplegic humans during electrical cycling. Journal of Applied Physiology 85, 979–85. 
(11) Van Soeren and Graham 1998;
Van Soeren, M.H., Graham, T.E. (1998). Effect of caffeine on metabolism, exercise endurance, and catecholamine responses after withdrawal. Journal of Applied Physiology 85, 1493–501. 
(12) E. Sophie et al. 2005;
Sophie E. Yeo , Roy L. P. G. Jentjens , Gareth A. Wallis , Asker E. Jeukendrup (2005) Caffeine increases exogenous carbohydrate oxidation during exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 844-850 
(13) Van der Merwe et al 1992;
Van der Merwe, P.J., Luus, H.G., Barnard, J.G. (1992). Caffeine in sport: Influence of endurance exercise on the urinary caffeine concentration. International Journal of Sports Medicine 13, 74–76. 
(14) Wemple, Lamb et al 1997;
Wemple, R.D., Lamb, D.R., McKeever, K.H. (1997). Caffeine vs caffeine-free sports drinks: Effects on urine production at rest and during prolonged exercise. International Journal of Sports Medicine 18, 40–46.
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What Amount of Fuelling do I need?

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Sports nutrition is applicable to athletes at all levels, in some form. It will differ greatly from individual to individual and there is no set rule that will apply to everyone for how and when to take on nutrition. Humans, however, are all built in the same way; all will burn energy, and all will need to replenish depleted energy stores. Professional athletes are no different to this; they are just extremely fine-tuned examples. At the same time the largest improvements can be in athletes that have a lower fitness level because they are less efficient and rely heavily on carbohydrate stores for energy. 

Livers of trained subjects are also better at being able to convert lactate and amino acids to glucose that can allow higher levels of blood glucose levels during exercises (1). This means that untrained athletes have to take their energy from carbohydrate stores (either stored or taken on board through energy drinks etc.). 

As a general rule of thumb, we would advise the following: 

Activities under 90 minutes in duration

Activities under 90 minutes in duration can be sustained without depleting your energy stores (carbohydrates) sourced from dietary intake. However, the body will need rehydrating and the electrolytes (sodium, calcium, potassium and magnesium) in your system replacing, during and afterwards. This is where an electrolyte sports drink can help instead of water. See below. 

Activities 90 - 120 minutes in duration

Activities 90 - 120 minutes in duration will begin to deplete carbohydrate stores and energy levels / performance may drop. If your carbohydrate levels continue to decrease, your muscles are forced to rely on fat for fuel - this is commonly referred to as ‘bonking’ or ‘hitting the wall’. Your focus should be on hydration and energy replacement throughout. By taking on carbohydrate in the early – mid stages of the session, your body should be able to call on this energy towards the latter stages and therefore avoid the drop in energy / performance. Additionally, this will assist in improving how you feel, post-exercise. 
Each duration requires its own strategy for fuelling

Longer Events

If you take part in longer events, you should already have some knowledge of what works best for you in terms of staying hydrated and fuelled for the duration. Again, your focus should be on hydration and energy replacement and there are a variety of ways of achieving this ranging from solid energy food to energy gels to powder drinks. You will need to invest some time into researching what works for you especially when considering caffeine. Hydration is important but there will be a limit (Said to be between 600-1300ml/hour when running) as to how much liquid you can take on board before potentially feeling bloated. Energy gels are a good way of topping up carbohydrate stores without having to ingest so much water. Solid foods are another good way of topping up carbohydrate stores without the extra water intake, but they can be cumbersome to carry if running, for example. What is the best form of nutrition for you? Solids v liquids? Look into this blog.


(1) Bergman, Horning et al. 2000; 

Bergman, B.C., Horning, M.A., Casazza, G.A., Wolfel, E.E., Butterfield, G.E., Brooks, G.A. (2000). Endurance training increases gluconeogenesis during rest and exercise in men. American Journal of Physiology 278, E244–51 

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What are Electrolytes?

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At a purely scientific level the electrolyte minerals, sodium and potassium, are involved in conducting electrical signals to/from muscles; calcium and magnesium are essential for the contraction and relaxation of the muscle fibres. These minerals work together to maintain normal electrical potentials and to coordinate muscle contraction/relaxation. Dietary basics are essential, but depending on your sporting activity and environment, maintaining optimum hydration, electrolyte balance and muscle glycogen levels may require assistance in the form of purpose designed sports drinks containing electrolytes.

In hot and humid conditions, sweat losses can be considerable – even when the duration and intensity of exercise are fairly modest. In such conditions, the main priority is fluid and electrolyte mineral replacement. Some carbohydrate replacement is also advantageous.

In cooler, less humid conditions and where the exercise duration is longer leading to significant reductions in muscle glycogen (for example over 1-1.5 hours), carbohydrate replacement becomes more of an issue, although fluid and electrolyte replacement is still vital.

The question of when you take on fluid and electrolytes can differ greatly from person to person. It’s useful to know how much you sweat but generally thirst is a good indicator that you need to start drinking more.

It is possible to work out your sweat rate and use this as a rough guide on how much to drink during exercise. Note your weight (naked) before and immediately after a long training session. By subtracting your weight post-exercise from your pre-exercise weight, you will be able to see how much fluid you have lost. You can then use this as a guide as to how much fluid you lose per hour; dependent on weather conditions, fitness level, exercise intensity and duration etc. Then, you can plan your nutrition strategy accordingly.

You must begin your endurance event fully fuelled and ready. Thereafter, you know that events over 90 minutes will require further fuel; ensure you take on this fuel, allowing for sufficient absorption time.

Correct hydration and fuelling strategies can be the key to a successful performance and avoiding feelings of lethargy and fatigue post event. By researching all of the advice from a range of companies you can develop your own strategy and find a consensus of opinion on how and when to take on nutrition.

When running, the ability of the body to ingest as much fluid as you sweat is almost impossible. Most rates of ingestion have not been seen above 1.3L/hr without leading to bloating and discomfort. When cycling however this can be increased because of the lesser abdominal pressures (1). From a triathletes perspective, it is worth knowing your sweat rates for both cycling and running as that can be different in sport and intensity. If you can start the run hydrated, then the issues surrounding discomfort with large volumes of fluid becomes less.

Without replacing electrolyte content (in particular sodium chloride), replacing fluid levels is near enough pointless as it is these salt levels that control fluid retention.

It has also been shown that repeated ingestion of fluids (including some carbohydrate) increases the rate of gastric emptying (2) due to the fact the emptying rate is higher with a fuller stomach. In other words taking on board repeated quantities of carbohydrate, salts and fluid leads to a higher overall quantity absorbed; hence the ability for your body to develop hyponatraemia, where too much water is absorbed without substantial electrolyte replacement. In hotter conditions, you can use this information to your advantage!


(1) Noakes, 2003;
Noakes T, (1985,2003) Lore of Running, USA, Oxford University Press

(2) Ryan et al 1989
Ryan, A.J., Bleiler, T.L., Carter, J.E., Gisolfi, C.V. (1989). Gastric emptying during prolonged cycling exercise in the heat. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 21, 51–58.
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How Your Body Absorbs Fuel

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After swallowing your traditional sports drink (that breaks down into glucose, and not fructose); it reaches the stomach before moving down to your intestine. During that journey, the various types of carbohydrate found in the drink are broken down to glucose by your digestive system. Glucose is the main source of energy for the body during exercise. This Glucose must then pass through the intestine wall, by way of Glucose Transporters and into the blood stream to be taken to the working muscles. 

However, the Glucose Transporters only allow glucose to pass through relatively slowly and this results in a bottleneck at the wall of the intestine. It’s thought that this Glucose ‘bottleneck’ is what limits the maximum amount of carbohydrate your body can absorb, from a traditional sports drink, to around 60 grams per hour.

In long distance events, nutrition is critical
Maltodextrin: This is a carbohydrate used in many traditional sports drinks. It’s a common type of carbohydrate that’s broken down to glucose by digestion and passes through the wall of the intestine at a maximum rate of 60gram per hour.

Fructose (fruit sugar): Is a unique carbohydrate that’s not broken down to Glucose by digestion. Fructose passes through the wall of the intestine using a completely different set of Transporters to Glucose (GLUT5). Fructose does not get caught in the Glucose ‘bottleneck’ and it can provide your working muscles with an additional 30gram per hour of carbohydrate. (1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6) 

A ratio of 2 parts maltodextrin to 1 part fructose has been shown to be the most effective in providing your muscles with carbohydrate. If we consume 60g glucose per hour, then we can provide our working muscles an additional 30g of carbohydrate per hour through fructose. 

As carbohydrate is the primary fuel for endurance sport, the more carbohydrate you have available, the faster and further you will be able to go. A number of independent research studies, are based on 2:1 fructose drinks, and they have clearly demonstrated a substantial performance and endurance advantage when compared to traditional sports drink formulations. (5)

When considering absorption rates, the aim is to balance liver release and muscle absorption at 1g/min (7). Despite fuel being used from both the liver and the muscles, hypoglycemia is one of the first reasons athletes fatigue during exercise which takes place when the liver glycogen (fuel) stores are used up. Without carbohydrate ingestion (no sports drinks or food) to suppress liver glucose production, even when only racing or training at between 70-85% VO2Max, these liver glycogen stores will be depleted after around 2 hours (8).

Each sport brings its own challenges and opportunities
After swallowing food be it in liquid or solid form, the ability for your body to use the ‘food’ is determined by the following four areas:
  1.  Gastric emptying 
  2.  Intestinal absorption 
  3.  Muscle glucose uptake 
  4. Oxidation limit carbohydrate used by muscles.

In most studies the stomach has still been fully emptied with doses of carbohydrate between 70-100g/hr (9)(10)(11)(12).

As described above, the intestinal absorption is balanced at approximately 60g/hr of glucose and a further amount of fructose polymers. This is set to 30g/hr as even a limited amount of fructose (50g/hour) (13) produces gastrointestinal discomfort (14). This is because there is limited capacity to absorb fructose in the intestine so it then travels to the colon where metabolism by bacteria produces chemicals that can induce colonic discomfort. 

Ingested carbohydrate during exercise is burned by the muscles in place of blood glucose derived from the liver, (15) and this rate of use increases up to an intensity of 60%VO2Max (16)(17). Carbohydrate ingestion during exercise does not however increase the rate of glucose output by the liver during exercise (18)(19)(20). It simply substitutes all or part of the glucose that would be released by the liver and any excess is stored as liver glycogen stores. Trained athletes may oxidise more ingested carbohydrate than untrained athletes (21), but only glucose infused straight into the blood stream (i.e injected) allows muscular oxidation rates to be increased further (up to 150g/hour) or with caffeine.

For more information on what you need for your event, check out this blog.


(1) Massicotte et al. 1986; 
Massicotte, D. Peronnet, F. , Allah C., Hillaire-Marcel, C., Ledoux M, Brissons G, (1986) Metabolic response to (13C) Glucose and 13C Fructose ingestion during exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 61, 1180-84 

(2) Massicotte et al. 1989; 
Massicotte, D. Peronnet, F., Hillaire-Marcel, C, Brissons G, Bakkouch, K, Hillaire-Marcel, C, (1989) Oxidation of glucose polymer during exercise: Comparison with glucose and fructose. Journal of applied Physiology 66, 179-183 

(3) Guezennec et al. 1989; 
Guezennec CY, Satabin P, Duforez F, Merino D, Peronnet F, Kozeit J, (1989) Oxidation of Corn Startch glucose, and fructose ingested before exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 21, 45-50 

(4) Jandrain et al 1993; 
Jandrain, B.J., Pallikarakis, N., Normand, S., Pirnay, F., Lacroix, M., Mosora, F., Pachiaudi, C., Gautier, J.F., Scheen, A.J., Riou, J.P., Lefébvre, P.J. (1993). Fructose utilisation during exercise in men: Rapid conversion of ingested fructose to circulating glucose. Journal of Applied Physiology 74, 2146–54. 

(5) Adopo et al. 1994; 
Adopo, E., Péronnet, F., Massicotte, D., Brisson, G.R., Hillaire-Marcel, C. (1994). Respective oxidation of exogenous glucose and fructose given in the same drink during exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 76, 1014–19. 

(6) Burelle et al. 1997; 
Burelle, Y., Péronnet, F., Massicotte, D., Brisson, G.R., Hillaire-Marcel, C. (1997). Oxidation of 13C-glucose and 13C-fructose ingested as a preexercise meal: Effect of carbohydrate ingestion during exercise. International Journal of Sport Nutrition 7, 117–27. 

(7) Coggan and Coyle 1988; 
Coggan, A.R., Coyle, E.F. (1988). Effect of carbohydrate feedings during high-intensity exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 65, 1703–9. 

(8) Noakes, 2003; 
Noakes T, (1985,2003) Lore of Running, USA, Oxford University Press 

(9) Hawley, Dennis, et al 1992; 
Hawley, J.A., Dennis, S.C., Noakes, T.D. (1992a). Oxidation of carbohydrate ingested during prolonged endurance exercise. Sports Medicine 14, 27–42. 

(10) Hawley, Dennis, et al 1992; 
Hawley, J.A., Dennis, S.C., Nowitz, A., Brouns, F., Noakes, T.D. (1992b). Exogenous carbohydrate oxidation from maltose and glucose ingested during prolonged exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology 64, 523–27. 

(11) Wagenmakers et al. 1993, 
Wagenmakers AJ1, Brouns F, Saris WH, Halliday D. (1993). Oxidation rates of orally ingested carbohydrates during prolonged exercise in men. Journal of Applied Physiology 75(6):2774-80.

(12) Saris et al. 1993; 
Saris, W.H.M., Goodpaster, B.H., Jeukendrup, A.E., Brouns, F., Halliday, D., Wagemakers, A.J.M. (1993). Exogenous carbohydrate oxidation from different carbohydrate sources during exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 75, 2168–72. 

(13) Peronnet et al. 1997; 
Péronnet, F., Burelle, Y., Massicotte, D., Lavoie, C., Hillaire- Marcel, C. (1997). Respective oxidation of 13C-labelled lactate and glucose ingested simultaneously during exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 82, 440–46. 

(14) Murray, Paul et al. 1989; 
Murray, R., Paul, G.L. Siefert, J.G., Eddy, D.E., Halaby, G.A. (1989). The effects of glucose, fructose, and sucrose ingestion during exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 21, 275–82. 

(15) Bosch et al. 1994; 
Bosch, A.N., Dennis, S.C., Noakes, T.D. (1994). Influence of carbohydrate ingestion on fuel substrate turnover and oxidation during prolonged exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 76, 2364–72. 

(16) Pirnay et al 1982; 
Pirnay, F., Crielaard, J.M., Pallikarakis, N., Lacroix, M., Mosora, F., Krzentowski, G., Luyckx, A.S., Lefébvre, P.J.(1982). Fate of exogenous glucose during exercise of different intensities in humans. Journal of Applied Physiology 53, 1620–24. 

(17) Pirnay et al 1995; 
Pirnay, F., Scheen, A.J., Gautier, J.F., Lacroix, M., Mosora, F., Lefébvre, P.J. (1995). Exogenous glucose oxidation during exercise in relation to the power output. International Journal of Sports Medicine 16, 456–60. 

(18) J.A. Hawley et al 1994b; 
Hawley, J.A., Bosch, A.N., Weltan, S.M., Dennis, S.C., Noakes, T.D. (1994b). Glucose kinetics during prolonged exercise in hyperglycaemic and euglycaemic subjects. ingestion or glucose infusion on fuel substrate kinetics during prolonged exercise. Pflügers Archives 426, 378–86. 

(19) Jeukendraup, Raben et al. 1999; 
Jeukendrup, A.E., Raben, A., Gijsen, A., Stegen, J.H., Brouns, F., Saris, W.H. Wagenmakers, A.J. (1999). Glucose kinetics during prolonged exercise in highly trained human subjects: Effect of glucose ingestion. Journal of Physiology 515, 579–89. 

(20) Jeukendraup, Wagenmakers, et al. 1999; 
Jeukendrup, A.E., Wagenmakers, A.J., Stegen, J.H., Gijsen, A.P., Brouns, F., Saris, W.H. (1999). Carbohydrate ingestion can completely suppress endogenous glucose production during exercise. American Journal of Physiology 276, E672–83. 

(21) Burelle et al. 1999; 
Burelle, Y., Péronnet, F., Charpentier, S., Lavoie, C., Hillaire-Marcel, C., Massicotte, D. (1999). Oxidation of an oral [13C] glucose load at rest and prolonged exercise in trained and sedentary subjects. Journal of Applied Physiology 86, 52–60.

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Saturday, 29 April 2017

Tri Training Harder Are Going To Greece!

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Syros - a hidden gem in the heart of the Cyclades

Syros, the beautiful Greek Island at the heart of the Cyclades may be an unassuming location for a training holiday, and it certainly is a hidden gem. Philip Hatzis, (Tri Training Harder Founder and Head Coach) has been training there for many years and spent most of his summer build phases on the island, working towards the Ironman World Championships in Kona. However, that isn’t the only reason why TTH are heading to Syros…

Who said anything about hills?

The TRIMORE Syros Triathlon Festival in June provides a stunning backdrop for numerous triathlon competitions. There are options for open water swim races ranging between 2.5-5km, sprint or standard distance triathlons and then 2.5-10km running races. The festival concludes with a short swimming obstacle race: a great way to bring all standards of competitor together. The triathlon festival is perfect for the Ironman athlete looking for some speed, the standard distance or 70.3 athlete looking to complete a big week of training or the beginner athlete wanting to trial a few different parts of a triathlon.

TRIMORE's Festival of Triathlon in Syros

As if the festival itself was not tough enough, Tri Training Harder are taking things one step further. We are bolting a training camp to the front of it. This camp is going to be tough and certainly not for the beginner: big swim days, both in the blue waters of the Med and in the outdoor 50m swimming pool and long intervals on the bike and the run looking at developing a response from your body. All of this will be carried out under the watchful eye of a Tri Training Harder Coach who will help you understand your data, improve your technique and explain how to execute your intervals as required. This camp is certainly not for the fainthearted and is the one to attend if you want to set yourself up for a brilliant season. If you want to train hard, this is the place to be! And all for just £315 for a “no frills, just training” experience.

Syros – An idyllic but tough training location
Philip Hatzis on Syros:

“I have practically grown up on this island, it is a wonderful destination full stop. It is a working island, so it has more character and culture than the more touristy islands in the region. Though not your typical training ground for triathletes and certainly not famous, it is a playground for hard workouts. The hills are brutal, in the summer, the heat is perfect (hot!) and the swimming is some of the best around. I am looking forward to sharing some of the hard training sessions I have completed over here and can't wait to create a few new ones as well.”

For more information, please contact us or check out our website.
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